He was shy, serious and deeply religious. When the king of Portugal died without an heir, he gained the empire by being a nephew. His empire provided him with a enormous wealth. He also helped to drive the Muslims out of Spain. 1588, he launched the Spanish Armada but was defeated. 2.
El Greco- real name Domenikos Theotokopoulos but called by the Greeks as El Greco meaning the Greek. His art often puzzled the people of his time. He used brilliant colors, sometimes clashing. His paintings showed deep Catholic faith of Spain, painting saints and martyrs as huge long-limbed figures that have a supernatural air. 3. Divine Right- the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as Gods representative on earth4.
Absolute monarch- kings or queens who believed that all power within their states boundaries rested in their hands. 5. Edict of Nantes- a declaration that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities. 6. Cardinal Richelieu- the ruler, in effect, of France under Louis XIII (1624), he had been a hard-working leader of the Catholic Church in France. He tried sincerely to lead according to moral principles, he was also ambitious and enjoyed exercising authority.
He moved against the Huguenots, believing that Protestantism often served as an excuse for political conspiracies. He also sought to weaken the nobles power. He ordered nobles to take down their fortified castles. He increased the power of government agents who came from the middle class. He also wanted to make France the strongest state in Europe, and in order to do this he involved France in the Thirty Years War.
7. Skepticism- the idea that nothing can ever be know for certain 8. Descartes- a brilliant thinker wrote Meditations of First Philosophy. Later became an important role in the Enlightenment. 9.
Louis XIV- the most powerful ruler in French history. His reign began as a 5-year-old boy. He became king in 1643, with the true ruler of France being Cardinal Mazarin, since Louis was so young. Mazarins greatest triumph was ending the Thirty Years War in 1648.
Louis gained control at the age of 23 when the cardinal died. He made it a point to be surrounded by nobles for two reasons, it made the nobility totally dependent on Louis. It also took them from their homes, thereby giving more power to the intendants. Also removed the Edict of Nantes. 10. Colbert, Jean Baptiste- Louiss minister of finance.
He believed in the theory of mercantilism. To prevent wealth from leaving the country, he tried to make France self-sufficient. He wanted to manufacture everything the state needed instead of relying on imports. He gave government funds and tax benefits to French companies.
To protect Frances industries, he placed a high tariff on goods from other countries. He encouraged people to move to the France colony in Canada. 11. War of the Spanish Succession- the struggle that came about when England, Austria, the Dutch republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states joined together against Spain and France over the growing power of the Bourbon dynasty.
12. Thirty Years War- a conflict over religion, over territory, and for power among European ruling families, having two main phases: the phase of Hapsburg triumphs and of Hapsburg defeats. 13. Peace of Westphalia- ended the Thirty Years War. It weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria.
It also strengthened France by awarding it German territories. 14. Maria Theresa- Charless eldest daughter, the heir to all his Hapsburg territories. In theory, her reign was to be peaceful, instead she faced many years of war. 15.
Frederick the Great- believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people, he softened some of his fathers laws, but keeping his military policies. 16. Frederick William I- known as the Great Elector moved toward a absolute monarchy. Created a standing army, the best in Europe17. Peter the Great- continued the trend of increasing the czars power. He brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control.
He also reduced the power